Vietnam Country Profile
Achievements – MARD’s Direction No. 2027 / QD-BNN dated June 2, 2015 on the promotion of application of IPM, period from 2015 to 2020; – 2014 Irrigation Sector – MARD issued the plan by year 2020 with the goal of 30% of irrigated rice cultivation to adopt SRI, and other environment friendly methods; – MARD’s Decision in 2016 on a vision for restructuring rice sector to increase efficiency of rice production and trade (in which target for FFS: By 2030 over 90% of the area should be under IPM); – MARD’s Decision in 2016 on promotion of application of biological measures on coconut beetle, period 2017-2020 “; – PPD’s Decision in 2018 outlines standards and modalities for FFSs and TOT; – Budget allocation from the government (central and local level) as well as CSOs, private
companies and community to support FFS; – Cooperation with the Ministry of Education and Training to promote FFS through community learning centers and secondary school in rural area; – Farmers created initiatives such as: on sustainable crop intensification – response to climate change, pesticide risk reduction, etc. Simultaneously farmers are also the resources to expand these initiatives through FFS. Progress – With the assistance of FAO, FFS has been introducing to Vietnam since 1992 through the Integrated Pest Management – IPM Programme. FFS aims to increase small-scale farmers’ knowledge and skills enabling them to make better-informed decisions in the management of their crop production systems which will lead to a more sustainable production and greater farm-level benefits including human health and environment protection. – At the national level, the Department of Plant Protection – MARD is responsible for overall coordination of the implementation of the Programme. FFS has been implementing in all 63 provinces. At the provincial level, Plant Protection Sub Departments (PPSD) are in charge of managing the programme and implementing FFSs and follow-up activities. In each province, there is a nucleus of FFS trainers that plays a central role. At commune level, the FFS alumna (especially woman) as the core force to mobilize IPM training activities and disseminate the IPM in their commune. The Support of Communal authority and participation of civil society organizations (CSO) play important role in sustainable development of IPM in communes. Further more FFS alumna also present their initiatives during the “Field day” organized by them to convince the province’s policy Makers as well as Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD) for policy support for many farmers in other provinces to learn and apply. – Since 2007 the National IPM Programme has developed the strategic direction for its activities on “Capacity building on pesticide risk reduction” to strengthen support for the implementation of the National’s programmes on food security, food safety and climate change. FFS alumna plays an important role in development of initiatives (sustainable crop intensification – response to climate change, pesticide risk reduction, etc.) One of the highlights was FFS alumna actively involved in piloting the models “Community Education Programmes on Pesticide Risk Reduction”. This Model provided input to develop standards for the Commune “Nong thon moi” (new rural development) as part of the Prime Minister’s Programme on “Agriculture, Farmers and Rural Development” (Tam nong). – Since 2012, Ministry of Education and Training has promoted FFS through Community Learning Center (CLC) and secondary school in rural area to educate farmer student on pesticide risk reduction and agro-biodiversity conservation and use. – In 2015 MARD has issued the Scheme “Promoting the application of integrated pest management (IPM) on crop period from 2015 to 2020” to contribute to implementation of the Prime Minister’ Scheme on “restructuring the agricultural sector towards increasing added value and sustainable development.” – Basic FFS approach has been applied in various training topics in order to build knowledge and skill for farmers and students, such as: IPM on crops, pesticide risk reduction, agro-biodiversity conservation and utilization, pesticide impact assessment, Household’s Herbal Garden and Nutrient and health, Vegetable GAP, produce bio-fertilizer (Composting/Bio Mat), Support to farmers to produce and access markets for safe and high quality rice, vegetables… Evidence of progress – From year 1992 to 2017, there were 3,279 PPSD’s technicians trained to become FFS trainers, and 5,855 farmers were trained to become Farmer trainers; 1,249,450 farmers and school students (53% female) were trained through IPM FFS. – In order to implement the MARD’ Decision dated in 2015 on “Promoting the application of integrated pest management (IPM) on crop period from 2015 to 2020”, since 2015 all 63 provinces throughout the country have annual plan for expansion of FFS. At central level, government allocate budget for IPM FFS through World Bank loan projects (WB6, WB7). – With support from the regional CSO The Field Alliance/Thai Education Foundation, Center of Initiatives on Community Empowerment and Rural Development (ICERD) collaborated with The Department of Continuing Education – Ministry of Education and Training (MoET) and the Plant Protection Department (PPD) – MARD to develop FFS curricular on agro-biodiversity and pesticide risk reduction (PRR) to be integrated in teaching programme of the District Community Learning Centre (CLC) and secondary school in rural area. In 2017, nearly 11,000 Community Learning Center at commune (Commune CLC) and over 600 District Continuing Learning Center (District CLC) using documents. The number of farmers, students engage in learning in the above documents is about over 18 million through Commune CLC and more than 200 thousand students learning at District CLC. – In 2014 the Irrigation Sector – MARD issued the plan by year 2020 with the goal of 30% of irrigated rice cultivation to adopt SRI, and other environment friendly methods; In 2016, MARD issued Decision on a vision for restructuring rice sector to increase efficiency of rice production and trade (in which target for FFS: By 2030 over 90% of the area should be under IPM); and in 2016 MARD isued Decision on promotion of application of biological measures on coconut beetle, period 2017-2020 “; in 2018 PPD’s Decision outlines standards and modalities for FFSs and TOT.
1992 1992 -1998 1996 1998 2007 – 2016 2015
FFS was first introduced
Training of trainers (TOT)
Issued National strategic on promotion of IPM FFS; goal: FFS covering of 90% of growing rice communes
Launged promotion of community networks to sustain IPM FFS
Capacity building on pesticide risk reduction to support national programmes (food safety, food security, climate change)
MARD’s Direction No. 2027 / QD-BNN on the promotion of application of IPM, period from 2015 to 2020.
up to 2017
Government budget for FFS
0 10% 10% 15% 40 – 95%
FFS alumna contribution to innovation
– Minimum tillage and mulching with rice straw in potato production: Potato production could bring incomes twice higher than rice production. However it requires more investment in land preparation and harvesting. FFS farmers developed the minimum tillage practices in combination with mulching using rice straw can bring highly effective such as increase productivity: 8-25%, increase income: 19-31%; reduce labor: 28-47%; reduce use of water for irrigation: 25 – 67%, and reduce pesticide: 75%. Application of minimum tillage potato production will allow the women in the North to grow potato again on paddy land so that they can harvest three crops per (Rice – Rice – Potato) instead of only two mono cropping of rice per year as currently practiced. Furthermore, the use of rice straw for mulching can overcome the burning of straw that causes environmental pollution. In addition, the biomass of rice straw used for mulching will rehabilitate the paddy soil ecosystem. In 2013, MARD issued Decision Number 204/QD-TT-CLT recognizing “no tillage potato IPM in combination with rice straw mulch” as an “agricultural technical advancement” instructing all potato-growing provinces to apply the practice. Since then 22 provinces has an annual funding to organize the training for farmers to applies. In Winter Crop 2014, practice of minimum tillage in potato was applied by over 4,500 farmers (70% woman). – Model on “Community Education on Pesticide Risk Reduction and Development of Local Safe Vegetable Programme and Market Access”. The model aims to demonstrate the partnership between and amongst GOs, NGOs as well as local groups and networks of small holder IPM farmers to address pesticide risks and related issues together, develop their local safe vegetable production (in compliance with GAP) and facilitate market access for farmer’s products as a community. – FFS alumni study alternatives to chemical pesticides, e.g., biological control such as predators and parasitoids, with assistance from IPM Trainers and researchers. The aim of the activity is to develop capacities of farmer groups as to be able to rear and mass produce alternatives to pesticides at community level for sustainable crop production. Rearing linkage with field experiment of control pest convinced farmers about sustainable management of pests and encouraged many farmers to maintain self production of bio agents and help other farmers to apply. In 2015 there were 23 FFS alumna groups in Mekong Delta maintained mass rearing pathogen Metherizum by their own resource and applied to control BPH. – Biodiversity Use and Conservation Asia Programme (BUCAP) adapted the IPM FFS approach as a research and extension methodology to promote Plant Genetic Resource Management. FFS alumna conserve and make sustainable use of local agro-biodiversity and develop new rice varieties as part of participatory community breeding programmes. 5,150 rice FFS alumna of 200 communes of 13 provinces throughout Vietnam has involved and maintained their activities without project fund. FFS alumna’s effective implementation of biodiversity conservation and use provided important input to formulation of MARD’s Decision No: 35 dated 15 January /2008/QD-BNN on Regulation on “On-farm Plant variety production. – The System of Rice Intensification (SRI): IPM trainers and IPM FFS alumna working together to develop the initiative SRI to overcome existing rice production problems, namely, the overuse of chemical fertilizers (especially nitrogen) and lack of good quality seeds. High application of nitrogen and high transplanting densities are two of the major reasons for the rice crop’s vulnerability to pests and diseases, resulting in lower yields and profits. SRI helps farmers to save on seeds and fertilizer inputs without yield penalties. Apply SRI also makes rice plant to be tolerant to the extreme weather and pests. In 2007, MARD issued decision No.3062/QD-BNN-KHCN dated 15 October, 2007 on the recognition of SRI as advanced technology and instructing promotion of SRI application in all Northern provinces. Since then 29 provinces has an annual funding to organize the training for farmers to applies. In 2014, there were 1.813.201 farmers of 29 provinces applied SRI, with 394,894 ha. – Home vegetable garden: FFS training activities related to understanding of nutrient of indigenous vegetable, traditional medicine plants and food safety (pesticide risk) have encouraged farmers become more interested in growing of vegetables in home garden with organic farming, but it also could be opportunity for market access afterwards. Since 2014 total 382 farmers (82% woman) of three provinces (Bac Giang, Lao Cai and Quang Binh, Yen Bai) maintaining “vegetable home garden” by their own resources. This activity really help women create food safety products, diverse nutrition for daily diet of the family, on the other hand also contributed to saving the money from buying vegetables. – Response to Climate change: In order to improve the knowledge and skill of farmers on response to climate change, there are several exercises on this topic to be integrated in the other training
contents for trainers and farmers (Training of trainer “TOT”), training on ABD, PRR, training for farmers the conservation of aquatic animal (Fish, shrimp). The climate change are also discussed in the meetings of the Women Club. Raise awareness about climate change also include facilitating farmers to discuss measures to mitigate and response to climate change. The end of training, a plan on mitigation and adaptation to climate change in intensive crops, especially rice has been developed by farmer and local stakeholders. – Conservation of fish/shrimp and aquatic animals in rice field: In some rice-growing areas (Bac Giang, Quang Binh, Yen Bai, Ninh Binh provinces), in recent years here the effects of extreme weather, rice are were flooded and losses from 30 to 100% of the rice production / every winter – spring crop in those flooded areas. FFSs were organized to help farmers in these communes to switch from individual rice to rice – fish combinations, so that, when the rice was loss due to flooding, farmers still have income from fish, therefore, still ensure improve family life. The average gross income from integrated ricefish-aquatic production is US$7,751 compared to US$1,892 obtained from producing only rice. Utilization of integrated rice-fish-aquatic biodiversity production practices resulted in average gross income ranging from 211%-551% compared with producing rice only.. Many areas of rice production in the Mekong Delta have a favorable environment for aquatic animals (shrimp and crabs) to develop in rice fields, but over the past years, the abuse of pesticides has become commonplace, it destroys the habitat of these species. FAO has assisted farmers in raising awareness and skills on pesticide risk reduction/IPM, cultivation. As a result, farmers have maintained sustainable integration farming “riceaquatic animals” (shrimp, crab), bring high efficiency. So far, about 800 alumna are maintaining integrated cultivation (Rice-Fish/Rice-Shrimp/Rice-Fish-Duck). – Production of organic fertilizer from “Bio-mats” residue: Many farm families still maintain a good practices, that is raising pigs and chickens to serve the nutritional needs for the family and for sale, buffaloes for plough and harrowing. However, due to the narrow campus of house’s garden, so where livestock are usually adjacent to resident, this situation caused the stench. To limit odour, many families have made investments in the cement floor to facilitate the rinse, cage wash water be poured into the sewer pit in the village, causing the stench and pollution rural environment. FFS was organized to helped women to improve environmental knowledge, and skills of raising pigs and chickens on the Bio-mats in order to reduce environmental pollution caused by the production process and take advantage of source of organic fertilizer for sustainable crop production, since the overuse of chemical fertilizer, especially nitrogen in crop cultivation is causing pests and diseases outbreak and affect environment as well as increase unnecessary inputs. Since 2014, total 403 farmer households of four provinces (Bac Giang, Lao Cai and Quang Binh, Yen Bai) maintaining their own resources to make organic fertilizer from “Bio-mats” residue. – With support from the regional CSO The Field Alliance/Thai Education Foundation, since 2012, The Center of Initiatives on Community Empowerment and Rural Development (ICERD) has colaborated with The Department of Continuing Education – Ministry of Education and Training (MoET) and Plant Protection Department (PPD) – MARD to support the Community Learning Center (CLC) and Secondary School in rural area to organize pilot model of training for farmers and students on agro-biodiversity and pesticide impact assessment (PIA). Up to 2017 total of 22 CLCs and 22 secondary schools from 6 provinces (Lao Cai, Ninh Binh and Yen Bai, Bac Giang, Ha Noi and Quang Binh) involved in the program.. During five years (2013 – 2017) total of 4,787 students (56% female), and 5,078 farmers (75% woman) were trained by mobilized source of fund.. Training curricula development
– FFS curricular has been developed and timely improved by trainers and farmers in order to response to the innovation of farmer training programs. During 1992 to 2015 there were 35 training curricular and technical guide line developed to support FFS training programme. In 2015 ICERD in coordination of local ICERD with the Department of Continuing Education – Ministry of Education and Training (MoET), and the Department of Plant Protection (PPD) – MARD published Teaching Manual on agro-biodiversity and pesticide impact assessment (PIA) to be integrated in teaching programme of the Community Learning Centre (CLC) throughout the country. Monitoring – Monitoring and evaluation has been conducted at central and provincial level. At the Center, Plant Protection Department (PPD) – Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD) is overall responsible for monitoring, PPD reported to the Ministry every week, month, quarter, and annual of the FFS programmes. – At the provincial, Plant Protection Sub-department (PPSD) – the Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (DARD) as the focal point to gather data on the performance of FFS in districts, communes, and evaluate the results achieved as well as the difficulties and limitations in the process of implementation and recommend to PPD. Annual survey (nationwide), snapshot monitoring. Challenges/limitations – At local level, often the people’s committee at commune level is not that well aware on pesticide management framework, and cannot act adequately to ensure that rules and regulations are followed – Demand for more FFS trainers, while many experienced FFS trainers have retired or switched positions. – The FFS will be more organized and how to ensure the quality. – Technical Service Centers are set up at district level combining (Agricultural Extension, Crop Production & Plant Protection, Quality Control and Veterinary services), with this context CP&PPSDs no longer exist district staff to conduct FFS. – Men and young people are finding jobs in other sectors, mostly ageing women take care of the small farms. They have time constraints to join trainings. – Convincing for recognition and absorb the FFS approach into the mainstream of the extension’s strategic as platform for sustainable mobilization of resources for promotion of FFS programe. Lessons learn FFS to build core farmer groups at commune level. Key farmers to help local authorities to conduct field experiments and piloting models of sustainable production, and they are also the extension forces to extend the application of the model results in the communities. Key Farmers also involved in policy advocacy.
FFS to build capacity and encourage farmers to participate in the field trials, then mobilize community to apply in a larger scale, then advocate for policy support. Mobilize communities to pilot the models: Community Education Programmes on pesticide risk reduction (PRR), sustainable intensification. Model aims to demonstrate the partnership between GOs and NGOs, local groups and networks of small holder IPM farmers to address PRR, to facilitate market access for farmer’s products, and support the Government in enforcing regulations including strengthening pesticide management at commune level particularly in relation to food safety in crop production. Link with media agencies to inform and disseminate the results experiences from farmers. Facilitate linkage companies and farmers in production according the standards and market access. Priorities for FFS Institutionalization In the coming year: – Develop of FFS trainer resources. – Share further evidence of improved practices and better integrated farming systems at field level. – Provincial FFS Strategy completed to promote sustainable crop intensification and response to climate change. Long-term: – Reduce pesticide use, improve adaptive capacity, improve farmers’ incomes across the nation. In the next 2-3 years: – Develop of FFS trainer resources. – Promoting organic production. – Promoting ecological agriculture. e – Bring youth into Agriculture. – Share further evidence of improved practices and better integrated farming systems at field level. – Engage with other stakeholders to develop strategies that can help a change at field level.